Pulicat is a vast coastal shallow, brackish water lagoon along the coast of Bay of Bengal in to which streams drain. Its length is about 70 kms and width varies from 1 km to 20 kms. The lake has 16 island villages and 30 villages adjoining the lake. The people depend on the lake for their livelihood. The lake supports a colossal number of flora and fauna adapted to this brackish water ecosystem.
The second largest brackish water eco-system in the Country supporting the largest congregation of Flamingoes is Andhra Pradesh. Greater Flamingoes come to Pulicat from Great Rann of Kutch (their breeding place), in the month of October and return back in April.
Flamingoes. About 15,000 flamingoes visit Pulicat each year.
Southern tropical dry evergreen forests, interspersed with Mangrove forests and littoral vegetation and cane brakes on Sri Harikota Island.
Max: 48Â°C; Min: 28Â°C; Winter 9Â°C
The green kingdom is represented with about 132 plant species like Walsura piscida; Manilkara elengi, Excoecaria agallocaha, Spinifex littoreus, Calamus viminalis, etc.
The Sanctuary is rich in invertebrate life including planktons, molluscs, insects, coelenterates and crustaceans. Prawns and fishes are also abundant here. The fish fauna is incredible with over 60 species like Pomfret, Sable fish, Sargin fish, etc. Monitor lizard, Common Krait, etc; constitute the reptilian realm. The avian dominion is epitomized by 200 bird species like Greater and Lesser flamingo, Garganey, Spot billed duck, Besra sparrow hawk, Pied Avocet, Painted snipe, Grey plover, Marsh harrier, Rufous turtle dove, Brown headed gull, Indian Great reed warbler, Blue chat, Yellow throated sparrow, etc. Jackal, Jungle cat, Black napped hare; are a few of the mammalian species inhabiting the Sanctuary.