Government of Andhra Pradesh

(Forest Department)


Rc.No. 9332/2003/U1

Office of the Principal Chief Conservator

Date: 5 .03.2003

Of Forests – Andhra Pradesh – Hyderabad


CIRCULAR NO. 3/2003/U.1





Sub: Social Forestry Programme of the Forest Department, Andhra Pradesh -

Certain Guidelines – Issued – Regarding.


Ref: 1. Circular No.04/2002/U.1 (, dated 07.08.2002

2. Circular No.02/2003/PMU-I/5 (, dated 13.02.03

3. G.O.Rt.No.6205, General Administration (SC.IFS) Deptt, dated

2.12.2002 communicated through PCCF ref.No.210/2002/M.1, 3.12.2002

4. G.O.Rt.No.62, Environment, Forests, Science & Technology (For.III)

Department, dated 5.3.2001 communicated in PCCF,

dated 28.3.2001.


1.1. Since 1968 when the term “Social Forestry” has been introduced in the Common Wealth Forestry Conference, it has assumed more and more importance due to increasing need for forestry activities outside the forest areas in the form of Agro-Forestry, Farm-Forestry, Community Land and Avenue Plantations etc.


1.2. The Government of Andhra Pradesh gives utmost importance to the planting programme and therefore “Clean and Green” has been adopted as one of the most important State Government Programmes. The Government has accordingly created three additional posts of Conservators of Forests for Social Forestry activities vide G.O.Ms.3rd cited above.


1.3. The Social Forestry activity which was taken up in a big way under CIDA and NREP programme could not be sustained in the same way after 1990 due to lack of regular flow of funds as the CIDA scheme was completed by that time.


1.4. Under NREP and CIDA project a number of plantations have been raised in Tank-Foreshore Areas and other Community Lands and subsequently handed over to Panchayats for further maintenance with all the relevant records by the Forest Department.


1.5. In order to derive maximum benefits by the Panchayats from the Social Forestry Programmes of the State and to streamline the activities of the Planning & Extension Divisions, in tune with the Government policy the following guidelines are issued:


2. OLD PLANTATIONS: The Divisional Forest Officers (Planning & Extension) Divisions should maintain a list of old plantations, which have been raised under CIDA, NREP or any other Scheme. Many of these plantations may not be in good conditions, whereas quite a few of them may be mature or over mature (Eucalyptus, Bamboo etc.) ready for harvesting and a few of them may be giving usufructs (Cahews etc. )


2.1. As mentioned already, these plantations were handed over to the Panchayats but could not be maintained due to lack of funds and clear guidelines.


2.2. The following actions are to be taken up with respect to these plantations:

(i)                All the plantations should be inspected by the Forest Range Officer and the Divisional Forest Officer, (Planning & Extension) and the present status of the plantations has to be updated for each division in the proforma given in Annexure-I

(ii)             The plantations which have attained the rotation age and which are fit for harvesting, should be harvested. But this should precede the preparation of a harvesting plan and its approval by the concerned local body authority.

(iii)           In terms of the G.O. 4th cited, the amount realised from the sale of plantations should be credited to the General funds of the Panchayat and the same should be utilised for carrying out the tending operations like SMC works, cleaning of jungle growth, dressing of copice stumps, singling of copice shoots in the harvested plantation and also for replanting activities.

(iv)           If there is a sizable balance amount after attending to the tending operations etc., the Panchayats may be motivated to take up multiple row avenue planting on the roads in the jurisdiction of the Panchayats.

(v)              Where the plantations have failed, action should be taken to replant the area with suitable species, by motivating the Panchayats. The Panchayats should prepare the Plan for raising plantations and get approval from the Zilla Parishads for release of funds.

(vi)           The whole idea is to improve the green cover in the State, generate income to the Panchayats and create wage employment to the local people.


3.1. NURSERY: Nursery is the first important step for tree planting. It should atonce reflect the expectation of the people, professional competence and social commitment of the Foresters. The nursery should also serve as the extension centre of the Forest Department to develop tree-consciousness among the people.


3.2. The expectation of the people can only be realised by raising a good nursery after a detailed demand survey in order to ascertain their choice of species. This is very important and therefore the demand survey should be carried out regularly.


3.3 The Forest Department resorts to raising of seedlings in two types of Nurseries – Temporary and Permanent – each of which has a few common functions but quite a few are different as discussed below.


3.4 Temporary Nursery:

(i)                The temporary nursery raised for the purpose of distribution of seedlings to the public should necessarily be preceded by a Demand Survey for the composition of species.

(ii)             The nursery should be raised by SHG (VSS/DWACRA/Schools) as far as practicable under a buy back scheme preferably.

(iii)           It may not be possible to raise the valuable seedlings of species like Teak, Bamboo etc. in all the temporary nurseries from the beginning. However, the demand of the seedlings of these species can be met fully by transporting and transplanting teak stumps and bamboo rhizones etc in the polythene bags from the Permanent Nusery at an appropriate time during the nursery season.

(iv)           On the whole, if we plan meticulously, it will be possible to raise and distribute the seedlings of their choice to the people as per the Demand Survey.


4       Permanent Nursery:

(i)                Permanent Nursery should be a centre of excellence for the Department in addition to the serving other functions of the Temporary Nursery as mentioned in para 3.1.

(ii)             There should be a nursery programme for all the year round for certain commercial species like Teak, Bamboo etc., fruit bearing species like Neem, Tamarind, Kanuga, Neredu, Soapnut etc. and indigenous long rotation multipurpose species like Neem, Banyan(Marri), Peepal (Ravi) etc. All efforts should be made to raise rare and valuable species like Tapasi (Sterculia urens), Rosewood in Permanent Nurseries for planting in tribal VSS areas/Departmental planting programme.

(iii)           CMAs should be established in the Permanent Nursery and regular programme should be taken up to produce clonal/graft seedlings.

(iv)           Mist Chambers may be established, if essential, otherwise the programme should preferably be carried on with the establishment of polypropagators which are cheaper, labour intensive and not dependent on continuous power supply.

(v)              Production of Vermi-compost should be taken up in the permanent nursery not only for using in the nursery or planting programme; but as a commercial proposition also.

(vi)           As mentioned, the nursery should serve as an extension centre and therefore it is essential that a few permanent board are diplayed at the important points of the nursery highlighting the importance of forests and tree planting.

(vii)         In the permanent nursery also an identified poor family belonging to weaker section may be involved in the maintenance of a fixed number of seedlings, say 30,000 to 50,000 and a fixed amount be paid to them every month for maintenance of the family. The savings made by the family should be converted into a durable asset for the family for generating income by forward linkages. Our staff may play the key role to bring the family above the poverty line through sustained efforts over a period of time.


5. AVENUE PLANTATIONS: Every year the Planning & Extension Divisions are raising avenue plantations. Many of these plantations are quite successful although they do not have the impressive effect on the public.


5.1 It has, therefore, been decided that Avenue Plantations should be taken up with a lot of planning giving importance to raising of multiple row avenue wherever it is feasible, even if it means only on the part of the total stretch of the avenue plantation. In other words, if we cannot raise the avenue plantation with multiple rows for the entire stretch, certain portion of the stretches must be of multiple rows. Raising of only single row avenue plantation only is totally discouraged.


Detailed guidelines have been issued in the reference 1st cited which may be followed meticulously.


6. KARTHIKAVANAM: Nothing can be said to exaggerate the importance of Bio-aesthetic Plantation (Karthaika Vanam) on the road side. Karthika Vanam should preferably be located near the road in the community land or RF within a maximum distance of 100 -–200 Mts from the road / highways.


6.1. Detailed guidelines have been issued in paras 5.3 to 7.1 of this office ref. 2nd cited above which may be followed meticulously.


6.2. The officers are once again requested to note that such a plantation should be raised with meticulous planning, implemened it with utmost care and maintained permanently with the involvement of the local community/beneficiary.


7. DISPLAY OF BOARDS OF THE FOREST DEPARTMENT: Forest Department of Andhra Pradesh has been using boards of different sizes depicting the messages. It is considered necessary to standardize the size and design of the board uniformally for the entire State.


7.1. The subject has been discussed thoroughly in the APEX Body of the office of the Principal Chief Conservators of Forests and accordingly the following instructions are issued:-


The Boards will be three – sizes as follows:-

(i)                90 cm x 60 cm.

(ii)             120 cm x 90 cm.

(iii)           180 cm x 120 cm


7.2            The boards should be painted in blue and green diagonally. As per the existing practice the diagonal line has to be drawn from the top most position on the left hand side to the bottom most position of the right hand side. The upper portion of the board should be painted in blue and the lower side in green as shown below:-









7.3 A few boards of the smaller size (90 cm to 60 cm) may be displayed with the messages in flourascent paint for putting up on the highways where the forestry activity has been taken up vigorously or the existing forest is quite rich and attractive.


7.4 The list of the messages in English/Telugu is given in the Annexure-II (enclosed). The officers are requested to display these messages only. On the National Highways a few boards carrying messages in HINDI may also be displayed.


8. Cow Dung Slurry Preparation and its application: The Cow Dung slurry is a very important and potent fertilizer which can be utilized to boost up the growth of the seedlings in the nursery and in exceptional cases in the plantations like avenue. The method of preparation and its application are given in the Annexure-III (enclosed).


8.1 Propagation of Palmyarah: Palmyrah palm is a very important species, which has plays significant role in rural economy. It has been the policy of the State Government to propagate Palmyarah trees extensively.


The Conservators of Forests (Territorial, Wildlife and Planning & Extension) are requested to take up pre-treatment of Palymarah seedlings before dibbling in the field. In case of avenue plantations, the Palymarah nuts can be planted on the road boundary abutting the private land in a row of 1 mtr. apart. The boundary of the Karthika Vanam may also be dibbled with Palmyrah nuts on 3 sides leaving one side for entry of visitors. The method of pre-treatment of Palymarah nut is given in the Annexure-IV (enclosed)


(S.K. DAS)




All the Conservators of Forests (Territorial, Wildlife and Planning & Extension & Research)

Copy to all the Divisional Forest Officers (Territorial, Wildlife & Planning and Extension)

Copy to all the Additional Principal Chief Conservators of Forests/Chief Conservators of Forests

Copy to the Circular Stock file.









Name of the village/ Mandal/ Range


Year of raising species


Present survival


Condition of Plantation growth


Whether fit for harvesting


Expected Yield

i) Phy.

ii) Fin.


Suggested SMC works & estimated amount required










Approximately 20 Kgs. of raw cow Dung (Fresh – not more than 6-8 hours old) should be put into a big pot (preferably an earthen pot – locally called Golem) in the nursery site and mixed with 1 Kg. of D.A.P. with a little water so that the entire mixture is of toothpaste like consistency.


This mixture in the pot should be exposed to sub, i.e. the pot should not be covered. It takes 7-10 days depending on the temperature to get the entire mixture fermented properly. The sign of it can be seen by movement of air bubbles from the bottom to the top of the pot.


One mug of this fermented mixture should be mixed with 5 mugs of water and the solution should be sieved through a fine cloth in order to get a homogeneous solution. This homogeneous solution is cow dung slurry and this is a very powerful fertilizer to boost the growth of the plants when applied periodically and methodically.


Application :


The cow dung slurry should be applied to the plants once or twice a week at the rate 100 ml to 250 ml per plant depending on the size of the plants, and 12 hours before and after application watering should not be done.


Precaution :


Sieving should be done through a fine cloth so that no suspended particles can pass through the solution. Some time the subordinate staff with over confidence sieve the solution through Gunny Bags or other such cloths and as a result a lot of suspended particles pass through the cloth and remain in the solution. This solution if applied to the nursery seedlings will do enormous damage instead of doing any good to the plants.





















It has been a long standing practice in the Forest Department to dibble Palmyrah nuts mainly in the boundary of the forest areas with the idea to keep the line of demarcation of forest area very clear on the ground in addition to getting innumerable benefits from the Palmyrah trees when they grow. In fact the important role of Palmyrah trees can hardly be exaggerated in a rural economy. However the efforts in this have given partial success only. In some cases, the germination is found quite satisfactory whereas in most of the cases the germination has been very low. All this has happened due to non-application of proper technique which is described below:


We should give pre-treatment to Palmyrah nuts before they are dibbled in the field. The brief method of pre-treatment is given below:


1.     The Palmyrah nuts collected from the fruits should be cleaned in water, and dried in the Sun adequately.


2.     An earthen pit should be dug out of suitable size depending on the quantity of Palmyrah nuts to be given pre-treatment. The Palmyrah nuts should be put in the earthen pit and filled to almost 3/4th of the depth. Fresh cow-dung should put over this Palmyrah nuts to a thickness of 8” to 10” and it should be covered with soil layer up to the top of the pit to a thickness of 4” to 6”. Over this, water should be sprayed once in 2 to 3 days so that the entire mass in the pit is of toothpaste like consistency. The Palmyrah nuts should be kept for 7 to 10 days in the pit, then they should be removed from the pit and cleaned in water. Immediately after this, the Palmyrah nuts should be taken to the field and dibbled one meter apart by using an iron crowbar in the hole of 6” to 8” deep. Precaution should be taken at the time of dibbling to see that there are no shepherds or graziers around to avoid the probable damage from them as otherwise after some time they may come and dig out the Palmyrah nuts for the sake of “thegalu” (kernel) which is liked by them not only as a tasty of food but it gives an element of satisfaction to their adventuring spirits.


Within a period of 2 to 3 months, the Palmyrah nuts start germinating. The rate of success is not less than 65%.


This Method has been adopted by me from certain observations in Andhra villages and practiced during the time I worked as Conservator of Forests with a great success. The method is fullproof and the success is assured.