Rc.No. 17309/2000/PMU.I/3

Date: 27. 09.2002

Office of the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests – Andhra Pradesh – Hyderabad





CIRCULAR No.6/PMU.I/3 /2002.


Sub: - Raising of Plantations under Semi-Mechanical Method –

Certain Guidelines – issued – Regarding.


One of the main activities of the Forest Department is to raise plantations of different species under different schemes. A plantation should reflect the professional competency and social commitment of the Forester and therefore there should be an all out effort to reach perfection in this activity.

2. The choice of species is very important and it has been discussed with the senior officers of the Forest Department and others connected with similar activity.

3. The necessity has arisen due to the fact that an uniform espacement of 3 M x 3M is being followed for all species like Neem, Neredu, Usiri, Seethaphal etc. and the planting area is not being divided into sectors depending upon the topography of the area which is necessary for ploughing of the area by tractor in proper direction for the purpose of soil and moisture conservation. After careful consideration of all the issues the following guidelines are issued:-

1.      The proposed planting area should be perambulated fully in order to determine the direction of the slope. If the slope of the entire area is in one direction only, the direction of the slope should be noted in the surveyed sketch and ploughing by the tractor should be done always across the slope. But such instances are very rare.

2.      The most common site is having slopes in more than one direction e.g. in some portion of the area, the slope may be from North to South whereas in some other portion it may run from East to West. In such sites the planting area should be divided into different sectors in such a manner that in each sector the slope is in one direction only and in the surveyed sketch of the site these sectors with slope directions should be marked and ploughing should be done in these sectors across the slopes. The whole idea is to do ploughing always across the slope in order to conserve soil and moisture. This idea is explained in a Diagram given below:



















Slope Direction


Ploughing direction


Percolation Tank in I & II order stream.



The above diagram shows that the plantation area is divided into four sectors A, B, C, D as these sectors have slope in one particular direction only which is shown by an arrow mark as in Sector-A and the ploughing direction by a double arrow marks.

In sector B there are 1st order streams and 2nd order stream which are to be dealt with SMC measures like Percolation Tanks etc.



3. The gully or stream flow in the planting area should be identified, demarcated on the ground and should not be ploughed to bring the area under plantation, but should be dealt with Soil and Moisture Conservation measures like erection of percolation tanks (small or big) with or without trench as mentioned in the Circular No.5/2002/PMU.I/3 & Circular No.5-A/2002/PMU-I/3,communicated in this office Rc. No.17309/2000/PMU.I/3, dated 23.8.2002 and 18.9.2002.

4. The choice of the species should be done very judiciously so that maximum annual/periodical return accrues to the society. While importance should be given to NTFP species like Neredu ( Syzigium cumini ), Neem (Azadiracta indica) Usiri (Emblica officinalis) Chinta (Tamarindus indica), Kanuga (Pongamia binnata), Seethaphal (Anona squamosa) etc., the other valuable species like Teak, Bamboo, Eucalyptus clone etc. should not be ignored. In the agency areas Tapasi (Sterculia urens ) should necessarily be raised as plantation at an espacement of 9 M x 9 M or 10 M x 10 M.

5.      A uniform espacement of 3 M x 3 M is not only inappropriate but it defeats the goal. The genesis of espacement of 3 M x 3 M is only due to the fact that tractor ploughing is possible from all directions with minimum espacement of 3 M x 3M. However, the NTFP species mentioned in the above para require different espacements.

6.      After all consideration, it has been decided that Tamarind, Neredu, Neem should be raised at an espacement of 9 M x 9M or 10 M x 10M whereas Kanuga, Usiri, Kunkudu and Bamboo may be raised at an espacement of 5 M x 5M. Seethaphal should be raised at an espacement of 3 M x 3M. Tellamaddi (T.arjuna) should also be raised with same espacement because it is maintained generally for its leaf. Chinta graft may be raised at an espacement of 7 M x 7 M. This espacement should be followed in VSS areas also while raising NTFP Plantations.

7.      Species with closer espacement like Usiri, Pongamia, Kunkudu and Seethaphal should be raised in blocks whereas the species with large espacement like Neredu, Neem, Chinta etc. should be raised in blocks with the provisions of planting the species of closer espacement in between these species. This point may be further clarified by saying that we when raise Chinta at an espacement of 10 M x 10 M but at the same time we can put Usiri in between two Chinta trees so that the overall espacement becomes 5 M x 5 M and the total number of plants per hectare is 400. However, in such a case if we want to put Seethaphal we may be able to plant 2 Seethaphal plants in between two Chinta plants at an interval of a little more than 3 M. Bamboo should be raised at an espacement of 5 M x 5 M in block. Bamboo should not be raised as an inter-crop in the same year with the long rotation species of Neem, Neredu etc., of large espacement as bamboo is very versatile and dominant. However, bamboo may be introduced only after the end of 3rd year as an inter crop and the plantation maintained properly so that the suppression of main species does not take place.

8.      A small extent of area of 2-5 hectares may be raised with valuable multi-purpose indigenous species like Ravi (Ficus religiosa), Marri (F.bengalensis), Maredu (A.marmelos), Usiri, Neem ,Barinka (Strebulus asper) and ornamental plants with the idea to create a ‘Forest for Recreation’, for the villagers which may be utilized by them as “Karthika Vanam”. This part of the plantation should be nearest to the village and easily accessible by the villagers.

9.      From what has been mentioned above it is clear that a lot of planning is required to raise a good plantation.

The first stepping stone is a good Nursery where the seedlings should be maintained for more than one year to make them tall and tough.

The seedlings should be genetically superior obtained atleast through a process of two cullings – first at the primary bed level and next at the bag plants level.

In permanent nurseries bamboo rhyzome banks should be maintained all through out the year in the primary and secondary beds and the bamboo seedlings with more than two year old rhyzomes should only be introduced in the plantations.


Sd/ - S.K. DAS




All the Conservators of Forests (Territorial, Wildlife, Planning & Extension)

All the Divisional Forest Officers (Territorial, Wildlife, Planning & Extension)


Copy to all the Additional Principal Chief Conservator of Forests / Chief Conservators of Forests for information and necessary action.


Copy to Circular Stock file.


/t.c.b.o. /