GOVERNMENT OF ANDHRA PRADESH
of the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests – Andhra Pradesh
SRI S.K. DAS, IFS
PRINCIPAL CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS
CIRCULAR No.6/PMU.I/3 /2002.
Sub: - Raising
of Plantations under Semi-Mechanical Method –
Certain Guidelines – issued – Regarding.
One of the main activities of the Forest
Department is to raise plantations of different species under
different schemes. A plantation
should reflect the professional competency and social commitment
of the Forester and therefore there should be an all out effort
to reach perfection in this activity.
2. The choice of species is very important
and it has been discussed with the senior officers of the Forest
Department and others connected with similar activity.
3. The necessity has arisen due to the fact
that an uniform espacement of 3 M x 3M is being followed for all
species like Neem, Neredu, Usiri, Seethaphal etc. and the planting
area is not being divided into sectors depending upon the topography
of the area which is necessary for ploughing of the area by tractor
in proper direction for the purpose of soil and moisture conservation.
After careful consideration of all the issues the following
guidelines are issued:-
The proposed planting
area should be perambulated fully in order to determine the direction
of the slope. If the slope
of the entire area is in one direction only, the direction of
the slope should be noted in the surveyed sketch and ploughing
by the tractor should be done always across the slope. But such
instances are very rare.
The most common site
is having slopes in more than one direction e.g. in some portion of the area, the slope
may be from North to South whereas in some other portion it may
run from East to West. In
such sites the planting area should be divided into different
sectors in such a manner that in each sector the slope is in
one direction only and in the surveyed sketch of the site
these sectors with slope directions should be marked and ploughing should be done in these sectors
across the slopes. The
whole idea is to do ploughing
always across the slope in order to conserve soil and moisture.
This idea is explained in a Diagram given below:
Percolation Tank in I & II order stream.
The above diagram shows that the plantation
area is divided into four sectors A, B, C, D as these sectors
have slope in one particular direction only which is shown by
an arrow mark as in Sector-A and the ploughing direction by a
double arrow marks.
In sector B there are 1st order streams and 2nd
order stream which are to be dealt with SMC measures like Percolation
3. The gully or stream flow in the planting
area should be identified, demarcated on the ground and should not be ploughed to bring the area
under plantation, but should be dealt with Soil and Moisture Conservation
measures like erection of percolation tanks (small or big) with
or without trench as mentioned in the Circular No.5/2002/PMU.I/3
& Circular No.5-A/2002/PMU-I/3,communicated in this
office Rc. No.17309/2000/PMU.I/3, dated 23.8.2002 and 18.9.2002.
4. The choice of the species should be done
very judiciously so that maximum annual/periodical return accrues
to the society. While importance should be given to NTFP species
like Neredu ( Syzigium cumini ), Neem (Azadiracta indica)
Usiri (Emblica officinalis)
Chinta (Tamarindus indica),
Kanuga (Pongamia binnata), Seethaphal (Anona squamosa) etc., the other
valuable species like Teak, Bamboo, Eucalyptus clone etc. should
not be ignored. In the
agency areas Tapasi (Sterculia urens ) should necessarily
be raised as plantation at an espacement of 9 M x 9 M or 10 M
x 10 M.
A uniform espacement
of 3 M x 3 M is not only inappropriate but it defeats the goal.
The genesis of espacement of 3 M x 3 M is only due to the fact
that tractor ploughing is possible from all directions with minimum
espacement of 3 M x 3M. However, the NTFP species mentioned in the above
para require different espacements.
After all consideration,
it has been decided that Tamarind, Neredu, Neem should be raised
at an espacement of 9 M x 9M or 10 M x 10M whereas Kanuga, Usiri,
Kunkudu and Bamboo may be raised at an espacement of 5 M x 5M. Seethaphal should be raised at an espacement of 3 M x 3M. Tellamaddi (T.arjuna) should also be raised with same espacement because it is
maintained generally for its leaf. Chinta graft may be raised
at an espacement of 7 M x 7 M. This espacement should be followed
in VSS areas also while raising NTFP Plantations.
Species with closer espacement like Usiri,
Pongamia, Kunkudu and Seethaphal should be raised in blocks whereas
the species with large espacement like Neredu, Neem, Chinta etc.
should be raised in blocks with the provisions of planting the
species of closer espacement in between these species.
This point may be further clarified by saying that
we when raise Chinta
at an espacement of 10 M x 10 M but at the same time we can put
Usiri in between two Chinta trees so that the overall espacement
becomes 5 M x 5 M and the total number of plants per hectare is
400. However, in such
a case if we want to put Seethaphal we may be able to plant 2
Seethaphal plants in between two Chinta plants at an interval
of a little more than 3 M. Bamboo should be raised at an espacement of
5 M x 5 M in block. Bamboo
should not be raised as an inter-crop in the same year
with the long rotation species of Neem, Neredu etc., of large
espacement as bamboo is very versatile and dominant.
However, bamboo may be introduced only after the end of
3rd year as an inter crop and the plantation maintained
properly so that the suppression of main species does not take
A small extent of area
of 2-5 hectares may be raised with valuable multi-purpose indigenous
species like Ravi (Ficus religiosa), Marri (F.bengalensis), Maredu
(A.marmelos), Usiri, Neem ,Barinka (Strebulus asper) and ornamental
plants with the idea to create a ‘Forest for Recreation’, for
the villagers which may be utilized by them as “Karthika Vanam”.
This part of the plantation should be nearest to the village
and easily accessible by the villagers.
From what has been
mentioned above it is clear that a lot of planning is required to raise a good plantation.
The first stepping stone is a good Nursery where the
seedlings should be maintained for more than one year to make
them tall and tough.
The seedlings should be genetically
superior obtained atleast through a process of two cullings –
first at the primary bed level and next at the bag plants level.
In permanent nurseries bamboo rhyzome
banks should be maintained all through out the year in the primary
and secondary beds and the bamboo seedlings with more than two
year old rhyzomes should only be introduced in the plantations.
Sd/ - S.K. DAS
PRINCIPAL CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS
the Conservators of Forests (Territorial, Wildlife, Planning &
the Divisional Forest Officers (Territorial, Wildlife, Planning
to all the Additional Principal Chief Conservator of Forests /
Chief Conservators of Forests for information and necessary action.
to Circular Stock file.