Wildlife

INTRODUCTION

Introduction of Wildlife in Andhra Pradesh:

The State of Andhra Pradesh is located in East Central Peninsular India. It represents the extensive Deccan Bio-Geographic Zone. It has three important geographical zones i.e., the Coastal Plains, the Eastern Ghats and the Deccan Plateau. It has three important rivers Godavari, Krishna and Pennar which drain into the Bay of Bengal.

Andhra Pradesh has 1,64.325.89 Sq.km. of geographical area of the Notified Forest area is 36,914.69 sq.km. which is 22.46% of its geographical area. Forest under Protected Area Network is 8139.89 sq.km. which is 22.05%. There are 1 Tiger Reserve, 1 Elephant Reserve (Koundinya Sanctuary and Rayala Elephant Reserve), 1 Biosphere Reserve (Seshachalam), 3 National Parks and 13 Wildlife Sanctuaries in the State.

The State is endowed with varied Eco-systems, habitats, and rich heritage of Biodiversity and is a store house of unique flora and fauna. It harbours some of the rare and endangered flora like Pterocarpus santalinus (Red Sanders), Cycas beddomi, Shorea tambaggia, Syzizium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida etc. It has fauna like Tiger, Gaur (Indian Bison), Great Indian Bustard, Lesser Florican, Jerdon’s Courser, Golden Gecko, other avifauna like Flamingo, Pelican etc. It has the Second largest Mangrove eco-system in the country (Godavari and Krishna Estuaries.)

SRI VENKATESWARA NATIONAL PARK AND SANCTUARY

Introduction:
Named after Lord Venkateswara, the presiding deity of Tirumala, is the beautiful S.V. Sanctuary & National Park, which have rich biodiversity. The habitat supports rare and endangered animals and plants, a few of them endemic to this region. The entire core area of the Sanctuary is declared as National Park duly enhancing the conservation status of the populations.

Uniqueness:
The Sanctuary is a wonderful abode for rare and endangered floral and faunal species which are endemic only to Seshachalam hills in the whole world.

Indicator Species:
Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus (Red sanders), Slender loris, Golden gecko.

Legal Status:The total area of Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary is 525.97 sq kms and it is declared as Sanctuary on 02-09-1985. Out of this, an area of 353.62 sq kms is declared as Sri Venkateswara National Park on 16-10-1989.

Forest Type:
Southern tropical dry deciduous forests, Dry Red sanders bearing forests and Southern dry mixed deciduous forests.

Temperature:
Mean annual: 25.22° C; Max: 43oC; Min: 14° C

Flora:
This serene forest is brimming with a rich in faunal diversity like Cycas beddomei, the living fossil is endemic to this region, Shorea robusta, Santalum album, Red sanders, Sterculia urens, East Indian cork screw tree, Ficus religiosa, etc.

Fauna:
The health of any ecosystem depends on all the componets viz; biotic as well as abiotic. Apart from plants, invertebrates too play a very crucial role in balancing the ecological web in nature. Insects like Preying mantis, Painted grasshopper, Click beetle, Silk cotton bug, etc; play a crucial role in maintaining a proper balance in the food chain. The forest is also rich in other lower invertebrates like arachnids, molluscs, etc. Amphibians that control the insects are represented by Tree frog, Bull frog, etc. Reptiles diversity is represented by the rare, endemic and the endangered Golden gecko, Monitor lizard, Russell’s viper, etc. Birds like Grey hornbill, Crested serpent eagle, Black headed oriole, Pied kingfisher, etc. make this – a harmonious place in the abode of Lord Tirumala. Apart from Slender Loris, the Sanctuary is also a home to mammals like Leopard, Sloth bear, Mouse deer, Giant squirrels, Four horned antelope, etc.

RAJIV GANDHI (RAMESWARAM) NATIONAL PARK

Introduction:
Drifting from the sheer sandy bottom of River penna and rising in to the large sand dunes as a distinct ecosystem in the heart of Prodattur town, is this National park. Rameswaram or Rajiv Gandhi National Park is situated in the central plains of extensions hill ranges of Veligondas, Palakondas, Lankamallais and Yerramalais in the Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh.

Uniqueness:
A beautiful sand dune ecosystem.

Indicator Species:
Burrowing snakes (Russell’s earth boa, John’s sand boa).

Legal Status:Pending.

Forest Type:
Tropical dry deciduous forest. Most of the Sanctuary is sandy. We can also find plains with Sissoo (Sesham) trees and Eucalyptus forests.

Flora:
The park is bequeathed with over 25 plant species like Dalbergia sissoo, Grewia villosa, Gymnema sylvestre, etc.

Fauna:
Invertebrates like Scorpions, Spiders, variety of insects like Butterflies, Grasshoppers, Crickets, etc. abound this forest. Amphibian fauna is represented with species like Bull frog, Common Indian toad, etc. Reptilian fauna includes like Russell’s earth boa, Russell’s viper, Common skink, etc. Over 50 species of birds like Peacocks, Little egrets, Parakeets; etc are found in this forest. Mammals like Spotted deer, Common mongoose, Black napped hare reside in this sand dune ecosystem.

CORINGA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY (CWS)…The Marshy Mangroves

Introduction:
Corangi or Coringa is a beautiful Mada or Mangrove Forest, where the river Godavari joins the backwaters of Bay of Bengal. Between this area and the sea ‘Hope Island’ blocks the direct confluence of the sea and Godavari. As a result, about 40% of the sanctuary is only sea-backwaters and the rest of the area is intermingled with creeks and gets inundated with tidal waters.

Uniqueness:
The sea coast of the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary is a breeding ground for Olive ridley turtles.

Indicator Species:
Black capped king fisher, Solomon arab butterfly, Fishing cat, Fiddler crabs, etc.

Legal Status: 05.07.1978

Forest Type:
Tidal Mangrove forests.

Temperature:
Mean annual -25° C.; Max -31° C. Min -21° C.

Flora:
Mangrove plants like Rhizophora spp, Avicennia spp, Sonnertia spp, etc;grow here. The plants possess salt glands to throw out excess of salt. They also give out pencil like roots called ‘pneumatophores’ or breathing roots (these help in exchange of atmospheric oxygen). The seedlings exhibit a phenomenon called ‘Viviparity’, where in they grow on the mother plant and detach themselves, to grow into new plant under favourable conditions.

Fauna:
The faunal diversity is wonderful with rare and endangered mammals like Smooth Indian otter, Fishing cat, Jackal, etc. Mangroves offer excellent habitat for birds like Black capped kingfisher, Brahminy kite, Sea gulls, Reef heron, Sand piper, etc. Reptilian fauna includes Estuarine crocodile, Olive Ridley sea-turtles, Common Cobra, Rat snake, etc. The invertebrate fauna that forms the main base for the other higher fauna is extremely diverse and rich with invertebrates like molluscs, gastropods, crabs, shrimps, insects, etc.

KOLLERU WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

Introduction:
Kolleru is the largest fresh water lake in the Country, located between the deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers. Kolleru serves as a natural food-balancing reservoir between the two rivers. The lake is fed directly by the seasonal Budameru and Tammileru rivers and is connected to the Krishna and Godavari systems by 67 inflowing drain and channels. It is an important water fowl habitat and a reservoir of fish with an average production of 7,000 metric tones per year. Aquaculture to is practiced here.

Uniqueness:
The largest fresh water lake in the country. It is one of the Ramsar conservation sites- a paradise for Water birds in the country.

Indicator Species:
Grey pelican

Legal Status:25-09-1995

Forest Type:
A wetland marsh habitat, consisting of aquatic weeds and certain tree species.

Temperature:
It has a tropical climate. Temp of surface water varies between 24° C – 32° C.

Flora:
Typical wetland flora like Ipomoea aquatic, Ottelia spp, Typha spp, Acacaia nilotica, Samanea saman, Prosopis juliflora, create a wonderful niche for birds here.

Fauna:
The lake supports a rich biodiversity of resident as well as migratory birds like Glossy ibis, Open billed stork, Purple moorhen, Painted storks, Pied avocet, Marbled teal, Common redshank, etc. It also supports a rich biomass of fish (63 species) and planktons – a major food source for the birds.

KRISHNA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

Introduction:
The mangrove derive their name from the word “Mangal” (Portuguese word for mangroves, “Mangue”). Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Krishna river-estuarine forest area of Bay of Bengal in Krishna and Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh. The Northern part of the Sanctuary is covered by back waters of Bay of Bengal. They provide appropriate ecosystem and refuge for fish, marine invertebrate, and birds.

Uniqueness:
This mangrove forest is not only a highly sensitive and productive zone but is also a nursery ground for shrimp, shell and fin fish. It is a breeding ground for the endangered Olive Ridley turtles.

Indicator Species:
Fishing cat, Olive ridley turtles, Fiddler crab, Mud skipper (Fish), Telescopium shells, Black capped King fisher, Solomon arab butterfly; etc.

Legal Status: 26-06-1989

Forest Type:
Mangrove forests or Tidal forests.

Temperature:
The climate is generally hot and dry with maximum temperatures rising up to 45° C during May and drops down to 18° C in December.

Flora:
There are about 19 species of plants found in this Sanctuary. Presence of all the three species of Avicennia i.e. Avicennia alba, Avicennia officinalis and Avicennia marina is a unique feature here. Plants like Rhizophora spp, Excoecaria agallocaha, etc; represent the other characteristic Mangrove flora.

Fauna:
Mangrove ecosystems harbor specialized fauna. Invertebrate life is wide-ranging from molluscs, gastropods, prawns, crabs and insects. The Piscean fauna is amazing with representation of over 40 species of fishes. Herp’s like Olive-ridley turtle, salt water crocodile, spectacled cobra, etc; characterize the reptilian fauna. Apart from black capped kingfisher – an indicator species, the vibrant bird life is epitomized by feathered bipeds like Brahminy kite, Flamingoes, Open billed stork, Brown headed gull, Cattle egret, Reef heron, etc. Mammalian fauna is represented by Fishing cat, Smooth scaled otters, Dolphins, Wolf, Ferral cattle (semi wild cattle), etc.

ROLLAPADU WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

Introduction:
Dry rolling grasslands of Rollapadu lie between the Nallamalai and Yerramalai hill ranges of the Eastern Ghats. RWS owes its genesis to the discovery of the endangered Great Indian Bustard (GIB) in its grasslands in 1982. The Forest Department took immediate measures to protect the species, including the setting up of safe and livestock free grassland enclosures for the GIB, which benefited other wildlife too.

At Rollapadu, even the local people are encouraged to inform any or sightings of GIB or their eggs. The role of locals in protecting this endangered bird in its grassland home is worth mentioning.

Uniqueness:
The only GIB Sanctuary in Andhra Pradesh.

Indicator Species:
GIB, Bengal florican, Wolf.

Legal Status: 23-04-1988.

Forest Type:
Open grassland interspersed with throny bushes.

Temperature:
The climate is generally hot and dry with maximum temperatures rising up to 45° C during May and drops down to 18° C in December.

Flora:
About 32 species of grassed like Aristida funiculata, Chrysopogon fulvus, Heteropogon contortus, etc; comprise the major flora of the grassland. Also seen are plants like Cassia fistula (Golden shower tree), Butea monosperma (Flame of the forest), Acacia spp, Ziziphus mauritiana, etc. The grassland sports a bare and dry look by the month of May and again turns lush green with grass growing up to 1 meter in height during the rainy season.

Fauna:
The grassland Sanctuary is rich in invertebrate fauna particularly the insects that form a major part of the diet of most of the birds. The reptilian life too is wonderful with about 19 species like large Land monitor lizards, Geckos, Skinks, Saw-scaled viper; etc. So far about 6 species of amphibians have been recorded here. RWS is a home to some of the rarest bird species of the world. There are about 124 bird species like the Lesser florican, Demoiselle crane, Black stork, White stork, Harriers, etc; which share the grassland along with Great Indian Bustard. These plains are also a home to endangered mammals like the Golden jackal, Indian wolf, Black buck, Chinkara; etc.

GUNDLA BRAHMESWARAM WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

Introduction:
It is located between two important hill passes known as “Mantralamma kanuma” and “Nandi kanuma”. The Northern part of this Sanctuary forms a major part of the Southern boundary for Nagarjunasagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve.

Uniqueness:
The hilly terrain of the Sanctuary, decked with plateaus, ridges, gorges and deep valleys support a diverse flora and fauna. The springs, sacred groves and the perennial river ‘Gundlakamma’ that criss-crosses through the Sanctuary add to the beauty of the Sanctuary. It also has many, mesic sites and ancient rock formations.

Indicator Species:
Tiger, Panther, Wild dog, Bats, Fig trees

Legal Status: 18.09.1990

Forest Type:
Dry mixed deciduous forest, moist dry deciduous, semi evergreen, dry deciduous scrub forest and dry savannahs.

Temperature:
46° C in summer and 18° C in winter.

Flora:
The floral diversity of this Sanctuary is incredible, with over 353 species of plants including trees, herbs, shrubs, climbers, grasses. The forest is an adobe to medicinal plants of which 10 are critically endangered, 21 are Endangered and 27 species are vulnerable. The plants like Madhuca longifolia, Dellenia pentagyna, Aristolochia indica, Terminalia arjuna, Pithecolobium ducle, Adina cordifolia, Vanda spp; etc; thrive here.

Fauna:
The forest life teems with invertebrate fauna including insects, scorpions, spiders, crabs, and other lower invertebrates. Amphibians like Leith’s frog, Indian bull frog, Marbled balloon frog, Common toad, etc; are found here. Marsh crocodile, Cantor’s black-headed snake, Russell’s viper, Common skink, etc; are a few of the reptilian wonders. Its proximity to NSTR makes the bird diversity is very colourful. Birds like Demoiselle crane. Spot billed duck, Red start, Bar headed goose, Horned owl, Grey Hornbill, Ashy prinia, Paradise flycatcher; etc are to name a few. Tiger, Leopard, Rusty spotted cat, Indian Flying squirrel, threatened Lesser wooly horse-shoe bat (found only in GBM WLS), rare Savi’s pygmy shrew; etc represent the mammalian fauna.

SRI LANKAMALLESWARA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

Introduction:
This Sanctuary is the Pride of India. The bird Jerdon’s courser, found only in Andhra Pradesh, was first discovered in the year 1848 and last reported in the year 1900. This bird, widely believed to be extinct since then, was rediscovered in the year 1986 in the scrub jungles of Reddipally village of Kadapa district. The Sanctuary forms the catchment for river Pennar. The Telugu ganga canal flows into the eastern flank of the Sanctuary draining into the ‘Pennar river’.

Uniqueness:
In the whole world, Sri Lanka Malleswara Sanctuary is the only home and hope for the rare and endangered bird – the Jerdon’s courser that was once thought to be extinct, later rediscovered after a span of 100 years in 1986.

Indicator Species:
Jerdon’s Double Banded courser, Carissa caranda (Kallimi) shrub.

Legal Status: 17-07-1998.

Forest Type:
Southern tropical dry deciduous forest in the hills, scrub forest in the plains, Southern dry mixed deciduous forest, patches of Dry Red sanders bearing forests and Hardwickia bipinnata forest, Tropical thorn forests and Tropical dry evergreen forest.

Temperature:
Max 44°C, Min 20°C

Flora:
The rare and endangered plants like Red sanders and Sandalwood are important species found in this area. The riparian vegetation is very in rich in floristic value, consisting of Terminalia spp, Syzygium spp, (Jamun), Wild mangoes, Anogeissus latifolia, Phoenix spp, Bamboo, Hardwickia binata, etc.

Fauna:
This Courser habitat also has good representation of amphibian species like Common toad, Bull frog, etc. The reptiles like Common Indian skink, Green vine snake, Common Indian Cobra, etc; are associated with this forest. Apart from Double banded or the Jerdon’s courser, other birds like Indian tree-pie, Common Indian Night jar, Grey francolin, Grey hornbill, etc; are seen here. Endangered mammals like Panther, Jackal, Chinkara, Chowsingha, Sloth bear, etc; make this Sanctuary their home. This diversity in the amphibian life, reptilian life, avian life and mammalian life supplements the richness of the invertebrate fauna found in the forest.

NELAPATTU BIRD SANCTUARY

Introduction:
Named after the village – ‘Nelapattu’, located just adjoining in the Sanctuary in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh is this wetland mainly for migratory water birds. The farmers of Nelapattu and their bird visitors have a symbiotic relationship. The bird ‘Guano’ (waste matter) acts as a natural fertilizer to the crops and the villagers in turn protect the birds.

Uniqueness:
The largest breeding ground for the Grey pelicans in South East Asia, with approximately 1,500 pelicans breeding every year. The local people of Nelapattu, Muchalagunta, Mylangam, etc; protect the birds as “celestial birds”, as their arrival brings good rains and good crops.

Legal Status: 25-09-1976.

Forest Type:
Southern Dry Evergreen Scrub, Barringtonia swamp forests, Grassland and wetland.

Temperature:
Max: 43°C; Min: 23°C

Flora:
About 108 plant species including; herbs, shrubs, climbers, trees are found in Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary. Plants like Buchnania angustifolia, barringtonia actutangula, Acacia arabica, Albizzia amara, Borassus flabellifer, Euphorbia antiquorum, etc; are a few of the dominant species in this wetland Sanctuary.

Fauna:
Scorpion fish, Cat fish, Fresh water silark; etc; account for the amazing fish fauna. The birds also feed on prawns found in the water. The majority of the faunal composition in the Sanctuary is birds with over 186 species of birds like Spot billed pelican, Grey frigate bids, Black bittern, Lesser whistling teal, Black capped kingfisher, Whimbrel, Painted snipe, Spotted sand piper, Gull billed tern, Orange breasted green pigeon, Indian pitta, Loten’s sunbird, Ashy minivet, Shama, etc; are to name a few. The mammalian life is represented by Jackal, Black napped hare, Jungle cat, etc.

PULICAT BIRD SANCTUARY

Introduction:
Pulicat is a vast coastal shallow, brackish water lagoon along the coast of Bay of Bengal in to which streams drain. Its length is about 70 kms and width varies from 1 km to 20 kms. The lake has 16 island villages and 30 villages adjoining the lake. The people depend on the lake for their livelihood. The lake supports a colossal number of flora and fauna adapted to this brackish water ecosystem.

Uniqueness:
The second largest brackish water eco-system in the Country supporting the largest congregation of Flamingoes is Andhra Pradesh. Greater Flamingoes come to Pulicat from Great Rann of Kutch (their breeding place), in the month of October and return back in April.

Indicator Species:
Flamingoes. About 15,000 flamingoes visit Pulicat each year.

Legal Status: 20-09-1976.

Forest Type:
Southern tropical dry evergreen forests, interspersed with Mangrove forests and littoral vegetation and cane brakes on Sri Harikota Island.

Temperature:
Max: 48°C; Min: 28°C; Winter 9°C

Flora:
The green kingdom is represented with about 132 plant species like Walsura piscida; Manilkara elengi, Excoecaria agallocaha, Spinifex littoreus, Calamus viminalis, etc.

Fauna:
The Sanctuary is rich in invertebrate life including planktons, molluscs, insects, coelenterates and crustaceans. Prawns and fishes are also abundant here. The fish fauna is incredible with over 60 species like Pomfret, Sable fish, Sargin fish, etc. Monitor lizard, Common Krait, etc; constitute the reptilian realm. The avian dominion is epitomized by 200 bird species like Greater and Lesser flamingo, Garganey, Spot billed duck, Besra sparrow hawk, Pied Avocet, Painted snipe, Grey plover, Marsh harrier, Rufous turtle dove, Brown headed gull, Indian Great reed warbler, Blue chat, Yellow throated sparrow, etc. Jackal, Jungle cat, Black napped hare; are a few of the mammalian species inhabiting the Sanctuary.

KAUNDINYA BIRD SANCTUARY

Introduction:
Kaundinya Elephant Sanctuary is located in Palamner – Kuppam forest ranges of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, on the Andhra Pradesh – Chittoor road. This Sanctuary comes under Project elephant – a Country wide Elephant Conservation Project taken up by Government of India. The Sanctuary also has many places of attraction around it.

Uniqueness:
The only home for Asiatic elephants in the State of Andhra Pradesh.

Indicator Species: Asiatic Elephant.

Legal Status: 18-12-1990.

Forest Type:
Southern tropical dry deciduous forest, with patches of thorn, scrub and grassy plains.

Temperature:
Summer - 45° C; Winter up to 9° C

Flora:
Plants like Albizzia amara, Ficus glomerata, Zizyphus xylocarpus, Gymnosporia Montana, etc; make this a green panoramic place with a breathtaking floral diversity.

Fauna:
Insects like Gongylus praying mantis, Painted grasshopper, Plain tiger butterfly, Common grass yellow butterfly, etc; abound this elephant land. Reptiles like Common cobra, Rat snake, Indian rock python, Forest calotes, Skinks, etc; make this place their abode. Birds like Partidges, quails, storks, Cotton teal, etc; make this Sanctuary their domicile. A further balance in the food-web is maintained by mammals like Indian Elephant, Panther, Sloth bear, Wild boar, Chowsingha, Nilgai, Hyena, Jackal, etc.

SRI PENUSILA NARASIMHASWAMY WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

Introduction:
Named after the presiding deity Peninsula Narasimha Swamy, placed between the two important hill passes viz; Badvel – Nellore road and Kadapa – Rajampet road is this Sanctuary. The velligonda hill range of lush green luxuriant forests interrupted with hillocks of igneous rocks, is a paradise for the rich and variegated life forms of animals and plants. The scenic beauty of the Sanctuary is breath-taking. The Sanctuary is connected by two water bodies viz; Somasila and Kandaleru.

Uniqueness:
The rich, virgin habitat of the Sanctuary harbours unexplored biodiversity.

Indicator Species: Cycas beddomei, Leopard, Brown flying squirrel.

Legal Status: 15-09-1997.

Forest Type:
Most of the Sanctuary is having hilly terrain with plateaus, ridges, gorges and deep valleys supporting dry deciduous forest, grasses, dry throny forest, and dry evergreen forest.

Temperature:
Summer - 45° C; Winter up to 9° C

Flora:
One can find here outstandingly magnificent, grooves of massive old trees of Mangifera indica (Mango) and Syzygium cumini (Neredu) that form a heavy dense canopy in the forest. Mahua, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gloriosa superba, Cochlospermum religiosum (Yellow silk cotton), Cycas beddomie, Red sanders, etc; are a few examples of the floral species that the forest nurtures.

Fauna:
The faunal diversity is amazing with a rich bio-network of various species of vertebrates and invertebrates. Invertebrates like insects, spiders, molluscs, etc. that play a vital role in maintaining a balance in the ecosystem, are in abundance. Marbled frog, Burrowing frog, Common toad, etc; are a few of the striking species of amphibians seen here. Reptilian fauna is represented with the graceful Common brown vine snake, Common krait, Starred tortoise, etc. The forest also inhabits a vibrant bird life with both resident as well as migratory birds like the endangered Indian long-billed vulture, the ace fisherman-Pied kingfisher, the monsoon indicator-Pied crested cuckoo, Open billed stork, Black winged stilt, White bellied drongo, etc. Leopard, Wild dog, Wolf, Sloth bear, Chinkara, Black duck, Slender loris, Giant Indian squirrel, Brown flying squirrel, etc; are some of the inhabitant mammalian fauna.

KAMBALAKONDA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

Introduction:
Named after the local hillock “Kambalakonda”, acting as a green lung for citizens of Vizianagaram, is this large and sprawling sanctuary.

Uniqueness:
A beautiful forest located on the outskirts of Vishakapatnam city.

Indicator Species: Leopard.

Legal Status: 13-09-2002.

Forest Type:
Dry evergreen forest mixed with scrub and meadows.

Temperature:
Summer - 45° C; Winter up to 9° C

Flora:
The invertebrate fauna too is wonderful with insects, arachnids, etc. Reptilian fauna is represented by Russell’s viper, Common Cobra, Chameleon, etc. Avifauna includes Paradise flycatcher, Tree pie, Quails, Partridges, etc. The mammalian fauna in the Sanctuary includes mammals like Leopard, Barking Deer, Jackal, etc.

Fauna:
The faunal diversity is wonderful with plants like Tectona grandis, Randia dumetorum, Grewaia tiliaefolia, Abrus precatorius, etc.