Production - A . P . Forest Department



STATUS REPORT ON IMPROVEMENT OF NATURAL REGENERATION OF RED
SANDERS
(Pterocarpus santalinus) in ANDHRA PRADESH

INTRODUCTION
Redsanders is an endemic species of Rayalaseema Regions (Cuddapah, Kurnool, and Chittoor) and part of Nellore District. This species is in high demand for its characteristics wavy grains and other commercial values (Export value). Due to this reasons Redsanders is subjected to smuggling. This factor is responsible for degradation of the Redsanders bearing areas.

PRESENT STATE OF THE REDSANDERS BEARING FORESTS
These are dry deciduous forests and annual fires during summer is a common affair. This affects the natural regeneration and its further growth. Ground fires are common in these forests and are attributed to the excess growth of Boda grass (Cymbopogon coloratus) which becomes highly inflammable during summer. In the ground fires, not only the young regeneration of Redsanders but also the humus layer on floor and its Microflora also gets destroyed. This ultimately affects the growth of Redsanders. In addition to the fire hazard the Boda grasse (High light demander) suppresses the growth of young regeneration of Redsanders seedlings. The elimination of Boda grass in these Redsanders bearing areas increases from 18 to 20 % regeneration (Jain, 1996). Hence the need of treatment of these forests was felt to improve the regeneration and productivity of naturally occurring Redsanders.

The Working plan for Cuddapah District reveals that due to effective protection and rejuvenation measures there can be a shift in the quality 6 to quality 5 resulting increase of 6.18 cmt per hectre with increase of 1269385.4 cmt in growing stock in volume similarly improvement in quality 5 to 4 will result in increase of 13.32 cmt per hectare resulting additional growing stock of 1368369.9 cmt. Likewise shift in quality 4 to 3 is likely to result in increase of 19.16cmt per hectares resulting additional volume of 512494.93 cmt for Cuddapah District. Thus for forest area of Rs.348408.15 hectare, the said practices could yield to increase of yield worth Rs.93.25 crores. Similarly in the case of Kurnool District, the 243810 hectare can yield in additional yields of worth Rs.67.29 crores due to effective management practices. There was no specific prescription for this species in the Andhra Pradesh Forestry Project in staff appraisal report, except under TP,6(a) (Reforestation with Non. Teak hard woods) which was abandoned due to cost factors. This issue was discussed elaborately during the MTR visit in 1997 and later on a new treatment practice was introduced exclusively for this species under 6(a) over and an area of 500 ha. of forest area under this treatment practice during the project period.

OBJECTIVE
1. Rejuvenation and regeneration of degraded Redsanders bearing forests.
2. Improvement of water regime through soil and moisture conservation works.
3. Gap planting in open areas.

SUMMARY OF TREATMENT PRACTICES:
1. REMOVAL OF BODA GRASS:- The dried Boda grass is highly inflammable and susceptible to fire. Boda grass uprootal helps in natural regeneration of the Redsanders and other Timber species. It further helps in building the humus layer and support the Organic manure to the natural regeneration and also to the standing crop including the Redsanders.
2. RANK GROWTH CUTTING, CUT-BACK OF WHIPPY AND MAL - FORMED SPPLINGS,MULTIBLE SHOOTS-CUTTING, CLIMBER CUTTING AND PRUNING:- This helps in the regeneration and formation of healthy and clean bole Redsanders and other valuable timber species. Further helps in removal unhealthy competition from the unwanted species against the desired species. Cutting back also helps in vigorus coppice regeneration.
3. WEEDING AND SOIL WORKING TO THE NATURAL REDSANDERS SEEDLINGS:- This helps in boosting the growth and early establishment of Redsanders seedlings and other valuable timber species.
4. CONSTRUCTION OF DRY PACKED STONE WALLS ( With locally available stone:- This acts as a physical barrier in preventing the spreading of forests fires which helps in the regeneration and humus layer building.
5. SOIL AND MOISTURE CONSERVATION WORKS (CHECK DAMS & CONTOUR TRENCHES):- These are constructed across the gullies and hill slopes and helps in arresting the run-off and prevents the loss to top soil from erosion. Further conserves the moisture which helps in regeneration of natural seedlings and their early establishments.
6. FIRE TRACING:- 3Mts. width fire tracing around the treated plot, along the bridle paths, cart-tracks etc., prevents the spread of ground fires from one place to another. This further helps in natural regeneration.
7. HAMATA SEED BROADCAST:- This helps in enriching the soil and suppresses the unwanted grasses that causes fire hazard in summer. This further improves the soil fertility.