of Andhra Pradesh
Rc. No. 33820/2004/G1,
O/o Prl. Chief Conservator of Forests
Dated : 11.10.2004 “Tuljaguda
Complex", A.P. Hyderabad
Sri. S. K. Das, IFS.,
Principal Chief Conservator of Forests
CIRCULAR NO. 1/2004/G1
Sub: Soil and Moisture Conservation works – Treatment of watershed – Saturation
level treatment – An instrument for alleviation of poverty and
increase of green cover – certain guidelines issued -Reg.
Ref: 1. Prl. Secty to Government (W&P) Fin Dept
17607/250/RIDF/WA-I/2004, Dt. 28.7.04
2. Circular 5 &
5A/2002/PMU I/3 communicated in P.C.C.F Ref. No. 17309/2000/PMU
I?3, Dt. 23.8.2002
3. Circular 2/J4/2004 communicated in
16284/2003/J4, Dt. 8.3.2004
4. Circular No. 6/2003/PMU III/2, communicated
no.4483/2002/PMU III/2, Dt. 15.7.2003
The Government of Andhra Pradesh has
taken up massive Water Shed Programme since May 2000 giving a
lot of importance to the Community Participation in order to conserve
the scarce water resource. With a view tpincrease the crop yield
and greenery in the state which would there by result in alleviation
of poverty & all around economic development ,the department
has taken up SMC works under RIDF, APCFM project & FDA in
the form of Continuous Contour trenches (CCTs), Staggered trenches,
Rock Fill Dams, Check Dams, Percolation tanks etc.
Certain guidelines have already been
issued in the references cited 2nd to 4th
cited. The progress achieved in this regard is satisfactory but
in no way it commensurate with the problem and therefore we find
only few perennial percolation tanks in the discharge area. If
the SMC work is done properly or the watershed is treated to the
saturation level, the last percolation tank in the discharge area
has to be perennial necessarily.
Since the water is the starting point
for development it has therefore been decided to treat the watershed
to saturation level necessarily instead of doing the SMC works
in a fragmented or piecemeal basis.
Often doubts have arisen regarding quantum
of earth work to be done to achieve saturation level treatment
in a watershed. To arrive at this, the riparian rights of farmers
under the existing tanks have to be taken into consideration also.
The technical committee set up at water conservation mission recommended
that 25% of the yield of existing tanks can be tapped in the watershed
for equity considerations of people living on ridge portions.
Taking the run-off as 40% of total rain fall this will allow extra
impounding of 10% of precipitation. Soil moisture regime remaining
same this will result in more than doubling the percolation of
water in the treated watershed( at present percolation is about
9% of total rain fall in the state). To give more clarity to this
concept the following model calculations are given:
Depending on rain fall areas can be
categorized into 3 categories, category A areas with annual rain
fall more than 900mm, category B areas with annual rain fall 600mm-900mm
and the category C areas with rain fall less than 600mm. Area
of micro-watershed which is the basis for saturation level treatment
varies from 400ha to 1000ha. For the purpose of model calculations
the area of watershed is taken as 500ha. In category A areas 10%
of precipitation which is intended to be impounded amounts to
450000 cum of water. In categories B&C this will be 300000
cum. In high rain fall zones ,as run-offs will be substantial
preference should be given to percolation tanks and in low rainfall
zones SMC works like CCTs, SGPs and staggered trenches should
be given preference. It can be safely presumed that 1cum of earth
work for PTs will give 25cum of water impounding in year taking
5 fillings for the pTs annually. CCTs , staggered trenches, taking
10 fillings annually will result in annual impounding capacity
of 10cum of water for 1cum of earth work done. For impounding
450000cum of water impounding in category A watersheds planning
should be done to impound 350000cum through PTs and the rest through
trenches. This can be achieved by taking up SMC works 14000cum
earth work for PTs and 10000 cum earth work for trenches. In category
B&C watersheds 100000cum of water can be impounded by PTs
which require 4000 cum of earth work and 200000cum of impounding
capacity through trenches which require earth work of 20000 cum.
For all type of watersheds it can be seen that roughly 24000cum
of earth work is required to be done to create SMC structures
to impound additional 10% of annual precipitation in a watershed
of 500ha area.
It is desirable that some of the water
harvesting structures serve duel purpose. As already instructed
in circular No.2/J4/2004 some of the CCTs can serve the purpose
of firelines. For this purpose the dimensions given in the circular
should be followed and for locating such fire lines cum CCTs the
fire risk zonation done by GIS wing should be used.
The following operational instructions
are given for implementation of saturation level treatment concept.
Location of Site:
Suitable location for construction of
various water harvesting structures are to be identified first
and their prioritization as per the local importance and feasibility
using the Beat maps prepared for WHS has to be don as per the
guidelines supplied by the Geomantic centre in P.C.C.F. Ref. No.
14827/2003/GIS, dt. 14.5.2003 (Copy enclosed).
The treatment should be on watershed
basis. While sanctioning the projects NABARD has given either
Range as a unit or the area with VSS as a unit in case of JFM
tranches. It may not be possible to completely treat the area
with the available project components. Usually the area of Range
falls in more than one micro- water shed (area is around 500 ha).
Water shed boundaries layer is available with GIS wing and by
superimposing the compartment layer we can know the list of compartments
falling in particular water shed. While selecting a watershed,
priority should be given to watersheds in ridge portion which
are more prone to erosion of soil. Once the priority water shed
is demarcated on the ground and marked on the Beat maps, all stream
should be identified. The water flow streams may be of 1st
order, 2nd order, 3rd order etc. Once the
streams are identified in the water shed, action should be taken
from the 1st order stream for harvesting of available
rain water by suitable Water harvesting structures.
location of water harvesting structures can be decided after actual
field inspection of the site after reaching the probable location
given in GIS WHS maps by use of GPS. VSS/ User groups should be
fully involved in selection of the site. A team consisting of
GW Dept., Irrigation Dept and FD officials should finally select
the sites after considering technical feasibility.
If the area of watershed is totally covered by CFM/FDA,
funds from these programmes should be used to saturate the watershed.
In case of watershed, where part of the area is covered by the CFM/FDA
, works in the area falling under jurisdiction of VSS should be
carried with CFM/FDA funds
and balance area of watershed with RIDF executing the works
through the VSS to saturate watershed.
2. Technical guidelines
The structure taken up should be as per
the guidelines and drawings given by Prof. T. Hanumanth Rao ,
chairman technical Committee in his four water concept
book. As far as possible
cement structures should be avoided (Check-dams) as they are not
cost effective for the purpose of percolation of water. While
forming PTs simple details like maintaining the side slopes
of bund ,consolidation of the bund by roller and maintaining the
section of the bund as per the drawing should be given importance.
Care should be taken to see that the top width of the bund is
not more than that specified in the drawings. The length and height
of by- wash should be planned as per the ready reckenors available
in Four waters concept of Sri T. Hanumantha Rao.sunken . CCTs/STs
must be provided with Septa
at regular intervals. The width of the Septa should not be less
than 1m which may be increased to 1.5 m in case of soft sandy
soils. It’s very important to give sides slopes of at least 1:1
in soft soils and ˝:1 in case of hard soils to the trenches. The
dug-out soil should be deposited at least 1 m away from the trench
and trapezium shape should be given to the dug-out soil so that
seed sowing can be taken up on this dug-out soil.
The instructions given Cirulars 5&5A
of on saturation treatment of water shed should be followed scrupulously.
As suggested in the circulars a series of mini PTs and SGPs should
planned on 1st and 2nd order steams. If
the gradients are more than 3% CCTs will be effective. At the
end of the water shed bigger PTs can be planned. The whole exercise
should result in at least one Pt in the treated area becoming
perennial and the streams in the watershed support minimum flows
even during non monsoon months.
3. Method of Execution:
No Contractor shall be engaged or assigned
or nominated in execution of these works. Works shall be carried out
through User groups(VSS) by depositing money in joint account
as is being done in implementation of CFM..
Even in non-JFM tranches works should be entrusted to near by
VSS and if no such VSS are available efforts should be made to
form new one and then start the work. No machines should be engaged to carry
out works as one of the objectives of the scheme is to give wage
employment to local people during lean seasons. Government instructions given in this regard from time to time should
4. Training & Capacity Building:
Though VSS is a cohesive group of
families living near the forest, a core group of 15 – 20 young
and enthusiastic members with in the group be should be identified
and trained in various aspects of the Forest Management. The entire
exercise of identification of the core groups and their training
must be accomplished and internalized with in the shortest possible
time. The guidelines issued in P.C.CF. Ref. No. 4483/2002/PMU
III/3, dt. 15.7.03 be
5. Safe Guards:
Payment to the works should be done only
after recording the works and checking for technical adherence
as per the work order. The recording and test checking officers
will be held responsible for deviations, if any, found later.
Necessary redeployment of man power shall be done for effective
supervision and implementation of the project. Priority should
be given to predominantly tribal/agency areas for implementation
of the project. Execution of works should be strictly as per the
sanctioned estimates. The progress of work should be closely monitored
by Range Officer and reviewed every quarter by the DFOs and CFs.
Display boards should be installed at every treatment areas duly
giving the details of the Project.
As and when the work is completed, a
project completion report along with photographs of major items
of works depicting pre-project and post-project situation and
Geo-referenced maps should be sent. Normally this should not take
more than 15 days time from completion of the project.
Sd/- S. K. Das
Principal Chief Conservator
All Conservator of Forests (T &
All Divisional Forest Officers, (T
& WL)/Copy to all Range Officers through their Divisional
Copy to all Addl. Principal Chief
Conservator of Forests, Chief Conservator of Forests in Principal
Chief Conservator of Forests Office.
Copy to Circular Stock File.